participle وجه وصفی است که توسط اضافه کردن ing برای ساختن present participle یا اضافه کردن ed (اگر فعل با قاعده باشه) یا استفاده از فرم past participle فعل (اگر فعل بیقاعده باشه) برای ساختن past participle ساخته میشه. participle برای توصیف یک اسم یا ضمیر به کار برده میشه و خیلی وقتها برای عملیات کاهش (reduction) ازش استفاده میشه:
I fell while I was running down the stairs
reduced to -> I fell while running down the stairs.
T tThe girl sat on the sofa while she was crying
reduced to -> The girl sat crying on the sofa
d Did you hear him singing? (It can be used after the verbs of senses, such as find, watch, see, notice, hear, feel, listen to, and smell)
Did you see the broken window? (It could be also interpreted as a reduction of the sentence "Did you see the window which had been broken)
g When a warning of punishment was given to the boys, they became quiet.
reduced to -> Given a warning of punishment, the boys became quiet.
این مثال بالایی یک passive participle است که برای کاهش دو جملۀ مجهول (passive) در حالت گذشتۀ ساده (past simple) که فاعلای یکسان دارن، به کار برده میشه.
یک perfect participle هم داریم که برای کاهش دو جمله که یا «عمل یکی از اونها قبل از دیگری انجام شده» یا «عمل یکی از اونها قبل از عمل جدید، مدت زمان زیادی در حال اجرا بوده»، استفاده میشه. جملۀ اول که قراره کاهش پیدا کنه، میتونه (past simple، present perfect (continuous یا (past perfect (continuous باشه.
HaAfter I had finished my exercises, I commenced to watch a movie. (past perfect)
reduced to -> Having finished my exercises, I commenced to watch a movie
She bought a pocket of milk and came home. (past simple)
reduced to -> Having bought a pocket of milk, she came home.
I had been doing it for such a long time, that I couldn't give it up. (past perfect continuous)
reduced to -> Having done it for such a long tme, I couldn't give it up.
The boy who has done it should be very smart. (present perfect)
reduced to -? The boy having done it should be very smart.
I have been doing it for such a long time, that I can't give it up now. (present perfect continuous)
reduced to -> Having done it for such a long tme, I can't give it up now.
همچنین تمام این بالاییها رو میشه در حالت مجهول هم به کار برد:
The bomb which had been planted there was very dangerous.
reduced to -> The bomb having been planted there was very dangerous.